- January 31, 2020
- Posted by: DICT
- Categories: REMEDIAL, STUDENTS, UNDERGRADUATE
A LECTURE PRESENTED AT: NIGERIAN ARMY UNIVERSITY, BIU DURING CENTRAL ORIENTATION PROGRAMME FOR THE 2019/2020 ACADEMIC SESSION
DRUGS/SUBSTANCE ABUSE CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES
VENUE: NIGERIAN ARMY UNIVERSITY BIU, BORNO STATE
NATIONAL DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY BIU AREA COMMAND
DATE: 31ST JANUARY, 2020
DRUGS /SUBSTANCE ABUSE: CAUSES CONSEQUENCES AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES.
The topic Drugs/substance abuse: causes, consequences and preventive measures is extremely important because of the epidemic of drug abuse facing us today as a nation, especially among our youths.
The use of drugs is a major societal concern, and schools are considered a privileged space for the development of prevention and health promotion. Many educators recognize that drug abuse among students is significant barriers to the achievement of educational objectives.
Thus it is clear that schools have become the major focus of drug/substance abuse education and prevention activities for youth. This makes sense from a practical standpoint because schools offer efficient access to large numbers of youth during years that they typically begin to use drugs.
National Drugs Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) is always around and ready to reduce the availability of these drugs through various interdiction activities and legal processes. The NDLEA or The Agency solves this drug problem in three ways, viz.
- Supply reduction activities
- Demand reduction activities and
- Prosecution of drug offenders
2.0 WHAT IS A DRUG?
A drug is any chemical substance which when taken into the body, by any means whatsoever changes the functions of the body or behaviors of the person/user. Three things apply here in this definition.
Drugs are essentially poisons. The amount taken determines the effect. A small amount acts as a stimulant (speeds you up) a greater amount acts as sedative (slows you down) an even larger amount poisons and can kill, drugs can be in form of tablets, capsules, liquid, powder, crystal and even, vapour.
- Drugs are medicines of all types prescribed by qualifies medical doctor to cure illness
- Some drugs are socially acceptable substance but not medicine e.g alcohol, cigarette, snuff, kolanuts coffee.
- Some drugs are illegal/illicit substance like cocaine, heroin, Indian hemp, tramadol, amphemines e.t.c
SOME OF THESE DRUGS ARE:
Cocaine, heroin, marijuana (Indian Hemp) tramadol codeine, Ephedrine, LSD PCP, Pemoline, Rohypnol, Diazepam or Valium/Librium etc.
Socially accepted drugs like: alcohol, cigarette, Gin, Tobacco Kolanut, tea, Coffee e.t.c
3.0 WHAT IS DRUG ABUSE
Drug is said to be abused when they are used in a way that deviates from medically approved or society acceptable patterns in the society. That means when:
- The use of the drug is not medically necessary (not recommended by Health workers)
- the use is illegally prohibited (not allowed)
- When it is excessively used, like alcohol.
WHAT IS DRUG MISUSE
- As for all prescription drugs, they are misused and not abused. Drug misuse occurs when drugs are taken without prescription (overdose) Secondly, self-medication is misuse of drug.
Thirdly, taking a drug for the wrong condition
SOME BASIC KIND OF DRUGS STREET NAMES
Cocaine C, Charlie, Coke, blow, Paradise White
Valium Downers e.t.c
Librium Tranks e.t.c
Rohypnol R2, Roche, rope, forget-me pill e.t.c
Heroin H, Big H, Horse, Helldust e.t.c
Marijuana Dagga, pot, weed, grass, Widow, J Maryjane e.t.c
Inhalants e.g Satan’s Secret, Shoot the breeze, Aroma of Men, laughing gas, sprays bullet, toilet water, hardware, poor man’s pot. E.t.c
glues, spray paint,
hair spray e.t.c
STAGES OF DRUG/ SUBSTANCE ABUSE
There are four steps of drug abuse, because that first time user will want to experiment with drug when offered by his/her friends before graduating to buying for himself/herself. These stages are:
- Occasional use
- Regular use and
CAUSES OF DRUG ABUSE
The causes of drug abuse are as follows
- Peer group pressure characterized by the desire to be accepted among friends or in society circles.
- Personal factors: Individuals with personality problems arising from society conditions like:
- Lack of adequate parental care
- Broken home
- Rural Urban Migration
- Lack of Jobs
- Social pathologies such as unemployment and economic problems/poverty, frustration and anxiety.
- Easy availability of drugs
- Environmental influence from family, school. Workplace, neighborhood or community.
- Adverts in the mess media
- to enhance performance
-the urge to achieve success in a competitive world e.g Sport Men
- Occupational predisposition e.g medical Doctors before going into Theatre room.
- Physical illness especially he chronic ones.
- CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG ABUSE
The consequences of drug abuse are categorized into four areas:
- Physical consequences: here, the user is exposed to having serious health problems that affect vital organs and functions of the body.
- Psychological consequences: Here, the user suffers sleeplessness restlessness, anxiety, psychosis e.t.c
- Social Consequences; Social problems show how an individual drug taking habit affects other and the society at large. Some of these are loss of job, dropping out of school/expulsion, criminal activities, accidents, prostitution.
- Legal consequences: here, the drug user will be arrested, prosecuted, put in prison for 5years, 15 years and even life imprisonment.
Summarily, the consequences of drug abuse are categorized into four areas. These are physical, psychological, social, and legal consequences see the table below
6.0 CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG ABUSE
1. Damage to vital Organs like, brain, liver pancreas
3. Nose bleeding
4. Damage to the unborn child (for pregnant women)
5. Chronic cough
7. The spread of Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
8. Premature death
10. Impaired visual ability
12. Respiratory e.g Pneumonia
13. Kidney damage of failure
3. Craving for the drug of choice
4. Dementia (loss of memory)
5. Hallucination (hearing o seeing an image when it is not real)
6. Depression (a state of being in low spirit)
9. Reduced coordination
10. Slowed reaction time
12. Panic attacks
13. Memory loss
1. Loss of job
2. family problems or example, divorce
3. dropping out of school/low grades
4. Criminal Offences like stealing, armed robbery, murder and rape
8. Delinquent acts
10. premature death
11. Road traffic accident
12. Mentally ill youths
13. Roaming the street
3. Life Imprisonment
- SIGNS OF DRUG USE “TELL-TALE SIGNS”
It is important for you to know how to detect or know who is taking drugs by recognizing the signs: these are called “tell-tale signs”
- Smell of drugs
- Having watery eyes
- Having thick and dark lips
- Possession of the drug itself
- Possession of drug related items like pipes, papers, lighter, and syringes t.c
- Unusual use of perfumes air fresher, incense, tom-tom to cover the smell of drugs
- Being usual withdrawn or evasive
- Downward performance in work or school
- Deviant behavior e.g stealing, lying, fighting e.t.c
- Memory lapses, difficulty in concentration
- Poor physical co-ordination in difference to personal hygiene
- Unusual use of dark glasses.
- PREVENTIVE MEASURES (SOLUTION)
The preventive measure is the avoidance of problems associated with the drug abuse. It is pre-emptive measurer taken to ensure that drug abuse does not occur. The aim of prevention is to stop the occurrence of drug abuse and to minimize its effects. Thus preventions is a proactive process to promote a health life style.
Consequently, three preventive strategies are usually adopted. These include.
- Primary Prevention
- Secondary Prevention
- Tertiary Prevention.
In Primary Prevention, it is targeted at those who have not experimented with drugs. That is, those who have not used bad drugs before. The aim of primary prevention is to stop the first use of drug by creating sufficient awareness on the effects of drugs
In Secondary Prevention: it is concerned with the treatment of drug users here, the user will go through counseling, detoxification and drug theraph.
But in tertiary prevention: it has o do with rehabilitation and social reintegration of treated drug users. The aim here, is to give them support in order to go back to the society as useful citizens/persons. Family members have a big role to play here.
9.0 COPING SKILLS
Another preventive measure in drug abuse is the coping skills coping skills are the abilities required to resist illicit/illegal drug use and trading these skills are grouped into five as follows;
- Decision making skills
- Interpersonal relation skills
- Communication skills
- Refused skills
- Assertive skills
All these skills are called coping skills because you need to develop he skills to withstand any negative pressure from friends and peer group use drugs. It is important now for you to know how to apply these coping skills in everyday life.
They include the following:
- Arm yourself with information about drugs
- Be assertive while saying no
- change the topic
- Suggest the person and walk away
- Ignore places where drugs are used
- be involved in hobbies
- Avoid places where drugs are use
- Avoid people who us drugs
- Build self esteem, be always confident
- Obey rules and regulations in school
- When in problem, confides in your parents and or teachers
- Always report those using or selling drugs
To initiate and maintain change in higher education with respect to drugs/substance abuse, must become permanent and pervasive fixtures on college and University campuses.
For schools, please always state clearly the penalties for breaking any rule. Enforce rules and policies against drugs/substance use. Ensure that there is a functional drug frees Club in the school.
Students must always remember that there is a strong relationship between drug use and crimes. It is important to understand that drugs/substance abuse damages the individual and society very silently. This “silent terrorism” of drugs/substance abuse destroys mankind. The real answer is to get the fact and not to take drugs in the first time and every other time.
Thank you for listening and may God Bless you all.